THE IDENTITY OF LOPBURI
Area and Location:
The city of Lopburi is about 154 kilometers north of Bangkak on the Phahon Yothin Highway, or 133 kilometers on the northern railway line. Lopburi province has a total area of 6,641,859 square kilometers, lying between longitudes 14o 37/ and 15o 47 / and between longitudes 100o 25/ and 101o 22/ . It borders the following provinces; to the north, it borders Nakhon Sawan and Petchabun provinces; to the south, it borders Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya and Saraburi; to the east, Nakhon Ratchasima and Chaiyaphum and to the west, Sing Buri, Nakhon Sawan and Angthong provinces.
Lopburi is located in the eastern part of the central plain, and comprises two geographical regions (1) the plains and (2) plains with hills and mountains.
1. The plains : 30 percent of the entire area of the province is formed by plains that lie 25-60 meters above sea level, and encompass the Lopbuti river and its streams, and the surrounding areas that include the greater part of Amphoe Tha Wung and Amphoe Ban Mee, the central and western parts of Amphoe khok Samrong.
2. The area of plains with hills and mountains : 70 percent of the entire area is formed by plains and hills that lie at an attitude of 40-600 meters above sea level and extend from the western part of Amphoe Muang and Amphoe Khok Samrong to the Dong Phraya Yen mountain range to the west, while Khao Phang Hoey and Khao Tabua mark the borders with Amphoe Chai Badan, Amphoe Tha luang, Amphoe Pattana Nikhom and other parts if Nakhorn Rachasima (Korat) and Chaiyaphum provinces.
The climate is hot and humid in summer with the so-called sawana included. Northeast and southwest monsoon winds brings rain in the rainy season while the cool season remains dry. In April, 41.8o C is the highest average temperature while 8.4oC is the lowest in January. The average annual temperature is estimated at 25.93oC-30.74oc and the average annual rainfall at 877-1,317.3 mm.
Electricity: In Lopburi, there are three offices of EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), an office of Lopburi provincial Electricity Authjority area 3 and 11 local offices in all the districts, providing services to 179,056 counted in the year 2003.
Water Supply: There are 11 offices of the Provincial Water Supply Authority in districts and communes supplying 18,427,213 cubemetres to 45,956 customers.
Telephones: There are 3 offices of the Provincial Communication Authority and 15 offices representing the telephone public service in both provincial and district areas with 26,968 telephone numbers.
Post Office: There are 17 post offices altogete in provincial and district areas.
Public Health: As of the year 2003, there are 17 hospitals with 1,954 beds, 180 doctors, 39 dentists, 53 pharmacists and 1,283 nurses.
In 2002 the per capita income reached 73,540 bahts, with 56,038 mllion bahts as the cost of mass products. Most incomes are based on industry, the wholisale trade, retailing, vehicle and accessory fixing etc.
There are 75 main products which are as follows:
1. Food products : such as Nam Phrik (chili paste), pla Som, food created from sunflowers, roll cake, salted egg, coconut juice jelly, fish sausage, rice pasty, and different kinds of local wine such as rice wine.
2. Clothing products : such as Mat mi silk, a native weaving craft which is regarded as a national product.
3. Ornaments and decorations : such as brass ornaments and antoque replicas, rattan furniture, a variety of handicrafts such as flowers, Mat Mi basketry, water hyacinth basketry, straw robes, blankets and white clay cake in its various product forms.
4. Artworks : such as Bencharong antique sandstone carving and herbal products other than for nutrition and medication.
Agriculture : Agriculture is the peoples main livelihood. The farmers like to grow sugar cane, rice, corn, sunflowers millet, tapioca, and different kinds of beans consecutively, Livestock: Livestock is also important after agriculture. Chickens, pigs cattle and ducks are raised in all districts.
Fishery: As well as farming freshwter fishing is done in the Pasak, Lopburi and Bangkham rivers, in the Pasak dam and its reservoirs and in private ponds.
Industry: In 2004 there were about 588 factories,big and small. A variety of industries target both the domestic and foreign markets. The most noteworhy industry is agriculture. Machinery and food products. Are somewhat less important while beverages. Are the least in importance.
EDUCATION RELIGION ARTS AND CULTURE
Eduucation : Two education areas, comprosing 433 insritutions of education at all level; primary, general secondary, tertiary (universities and vocational colleges) and non-formal with 16,257 teachers abd 129,366 students in the year 2003
Religion : Buddhism, Christianity and Islam are the religions of prople in Lopburi with 647 buddhist temples, 37 priest centers, 3 christian churches and 3 mosques.
Three categories of touristh spots are as follows:
1. Natural tourism. A number of natural tourist spots are considered very interesting for visitors. Such popular scenic attractions are Wang Karn Luang Waterfall, Pasak Chonlasit Dam, Ang Sub Lek Reservoir, Suan Madua Waterfall, Sunflower Fields, Sap Lanka Wildlife Reservation and khao Somphot Non-hunting Area with nature trails in either area for people to observe flora, the ecology and wildlife.
2. Historical tourism. Includes the viewing of artifacts, ancient sculptures and religious such as Phra Prang Samyot, Phra Karn Shrine. Wat Nakhon Kosa, Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Wat Bandai Hin, Phrang Khaek Temple, the Royal Reception House for foreign envoys known as Ban Wichayen, Phra Narai Ratchanivet Palace Wat Kawissararam, Wat choeng Tha, Wat Sao Thong Tong, Sarn luk son, Wat Mani Chonlakhan, Wat Tong Pu, Wat Bot, Wat lai, Wat Khao samokorn and Ban Pong manao which is an open museum and prehistoric archaelolgical site.
3. Festivals and traditions; Festivals and traditions are major attractions for tourism as are activities in military areas, the Mat Mee fabric weaving center, Ban Tha Krayang community for metalwork, and the white clay cake village.
Major Festivals and Traditions of Lopburi:
King Narai the Great Fair in February at Narai Ratchanivet Palace.
Chak Phra Si Ari Fair in June at Wat Lai, Amphoe Tha Wung.
Kuan Khao Tip Fair on the night of the full moon in June.
Sai Krachat Ceremony of Thai Phuan in conjunction with the sermon festivel.
Kam Fa Ceremony of Thai Phuan on the night of the full moon in February.
Yu Pa Chu of the Mon people in June.
Songkran Festival in April.
Red Cross Fair in July.
Loy Kratong Festival in Novermber.
Sunflower Fair in November and December.
Cool season Fair in November and December.
Motto : Wang Narai Ku ban, Sarn Phra Karn Ku Muang
Phrang Samyot Lue Luang
Muang hang Din So Pong
Khuan Pa Sak Chonlasit Krerk Kong
Pandin Thong Somdej Phra Narai
Translation : Phra Narai Patchanivet is a sacred palace for every household, Sarn Phra Karn Shrine is a holy city, as stories have told. Prang Samyot in magnificent, and unique white clay is ready to be taken. Pasak Chonlasit Dam id famous and grand in the glory land of King Narai the Great.
Emblem : A replica of the god Narai of four hands (the Three Pagodas) stands on a stage in front of Phra Prang Samyot. The statue represents King Narai the Great who reigned at Ayutthaya and founded Lopburi (in 1466) as the second capital city of the kingdom.
Flag : A plain white stripe between two stripes of blue. The emblem in the circle in the middle of the flag is a replica of Phra Prang Samyot. Underneath are the words Lopburi Province
Administration : Lopburi comprises the following 11 districts;
1.Amphoe Muang 2. Amphoe Khok Samrong
3.Amphoe Chai Badan 4. Amphone Tha Wung
5.Amphoe Ban Mee 6. Amphone Pattana Nikom
7.Amphoe Tha Luang 8. Amphoe Sra Bost
9.Amphoe Khok Charoen 10.Amphoe Sra Bost
11.Amphone Nong Muang
The 11 districts are made up of 122 communes and 1, 126 villages which also include local admininistration units. The province has 1 provincial administrative organization, 2 city municipalities, 11 town municipalities and 112 communal administrative organizations.
Population: 771,519, comprising 389,694 men, and 381,825 women within 36,904 households.
Political representation : 2 senators and 5 parliamentary members.
Lopburi is rich in natural resources. Both the plain area and the plains with hills are suitable for raising important crops such as rice, sugar cane, and sunflowers, while on the lower land, fruits such as oranges, kratorn, Jackfruit, and sugar apples, are more popular, Along the mountain range, 123,125 rai (1961) have been surveyed and designated a lush forest watershed of the Pasak River, where we can find many inportant kinds of wood such as mixed dleciduous, red wood, Pterocarpus macrocarpusalatus and bamboo. There are 4 national reserve parks covering a total area of 1,110,108.5 rai. These are named Sap Lanka, Wang Ploeng, Chai Badan< Panead, and Khao Sompot.
Water resources : Water resources fall into 3 categories:
1. underground water, springing up and running down such as Ang Sub Kek Reservoir, Wang Karn Luang Waterfall, and Suan Madua Waterfall.
2. water for irrigation such as Pasak Chonlasit Dam.
3. surface water significant for agriculture and flood prevention such as the Lopburi river in the west, running through Amphoe Tha Wung and Amphone Muang, and the Pasak river in the east, running through Amphoe Chai Badan and Amphoe Pattana Nikom.
Soll : 54 persent of the soil is fertile and suitable for plantation agriculture in Amphoe Pattana Nikom, Khok Samrong, Chai Badan Tha Luang and Sra Bost while 34 percent is appropriate for rice farmiong in Amphoe Tha Wung and Ban Mee. The other 12 percent applies to hilly area which are unsuitable for agriculture.
Mineral resources : According to geologists, the structure of Lopburi comprises sedimentary rocks, metamorphic rocks and igneous rocks Mineral resources have been found in different places, for instance iron at Khoao Tab Kwai, Amphoe Khok Samrong, copper at Khao Samyod, Amphoe Musng, quartz at Khao Phra Ngam (Amphoe Moang), at Khao Lham (Amphoe Khok Samrong) and at Ban Houy Di Lerd (Adphoe Chai Badan); and marl and white clay at Amphoe Muang. Other mineral reaources such as limestone, marble, gypsum, phosphate, precious metals(gold), semi-precious stones (calcidonia, Opal, Pyrits) and sandstone have also been discovered.
Wildife : In former times, Lopburi was rich in different kinds of wild animals whose habitat was the lush and abundant forest. Owing to the reduction in the size of the woodlands, fewer wild animals can survive. The fauna that remain are, typically, bears, deers, tigers, monkeys and various species of birds.
รวบรวมโดย นางมานิตา เขื่อนขันธ์ ผู้อำนวยการพิพิธภัณฑสถานแห่งชาติสมเด็จพระนารายณ์
แปลโดย นางอุษา บูรณินทุ อดีตปลัดองค์การบริหารส่วนจังหวัดลพบุรี
วารสารองค์การบริหารส่วนจังหวัดลพบุรี ปีที่ 4 ฉบับที่ 21 ประจำเดือนกันยายน-ตุลาคม 2548 หน้า 14-17